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Storage Autoscaling of a MongoDB Standalone Database

This guide will show you how to use KubeDB to autoscale the storage of a MongoDB standalone database.

Before You Begin

  • At first, you need to have a Kubernetes cluster, and the kubectl command-line tool must be configured to communicate with your cluster.

  • Install KubeDB Community, Enterprise and Autoscaler operator in your cluster following the steps here.

  • Install Metrics Server from here

  • Install Vertical Pod Autoscaler from here

  • Install Prometheus from here

  • You must have a StorageClass that supports volume expansion.

  • You should be familiar with the following KubeDB concepts:

To keep everything isolated, we are going to use a separate namespace called demo throughout this tutorial.

$ kubectl create ns demo
namespace/demo created

Note: YAML files used in this tutorial are stored in docs/examples/mongodb directory of kubedb/docs repository.

Storage Autoscaling of Standalone Database

At first verify that your cluster has a storage class, that supports volume expansion. Let’s check,

$ kubectl get storageclass
NAME                  PROVISIONER             RECLAIMPOLICY   VOLUMEBINDINGMODE      ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION   AGE
standard (default)    rancher.io/local-path   Delete          WaitForFirstConsumer   false                  9h
topolvm-provisioner   topolvm.cybozu.com      Delete          WaitForFirstConsumer   true                   9h

We can see from the output the topolvm-provisioner storage class has ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION field as true. So, this storage class supports volume expansion. We can use it. You can install topolvm from here

Now, we are going to deploy a MongoDB standalone using a supported version by KubeDB operator. Then we are going to apply MongoDBAutoscaler to set up autoscaling.

Deploy MongoDB standalone

In this section, we are going to deploy a MongoDB standalone database with version 4.2.3. Then, in the next section we will set up autoscaling for this database using MongoDBAutoscaler CRD. Below is the YAML of the MongoDB CR that we are going to create,

apiVersion: kubedb.com/v1alpha2
kind: MongoDB
metadata:
  name: mg-standalone
  namespace: demo
spec:
  version: "4.2.3"
  storageType: Durable
  storage:
    storageClassName: topolvm-provisioner
    resources:
      requests:
        storage: 1Gi
  terminationPolicy: WipeOut

Let’s create the MongoDB CRO we have shown above,

$ kubectl create -f https://github.com/kubedb/docs/raw/v2021.03.17/docs/examples/mongodb/autoscaling/storage/mg-standalone.yaml
mongodb.kubedb.com/mg-standalone created

Now, wait until mg-standalone has status Ready. i.e,

$ kubectl get mg -n demo
NAME            VERSION    STATUS    AGE
mg-standalone   4.2.3      Ready     2m53s

Let’s check volume size from statefulset, and from the persistent volume,

$ kubectl get sts -n demo mg-standalone -o json | jq '.spec.volumeClaimTemplates[].spec.resources.requests.storage'
"1Gi"

$ kubectl get pv -n demo
NAME                                       CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM                          STORAGECLASS          REASON   AGE
pvc-cf469ed8-a89a-49ca-bf7c-8c76b7889428   1Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    demo/datadir-mg-standalone-0   topolvm-provisioner            7m41s

You can see the statefulset has 1GB storage, and the capacity of the persistent volume is also 1GB.

We are now ready to apply the MongoDBAutoscaler CRO to set up storage autoscaling for this database.

Storage Autoscaling

Here, we are going to set up storage autoscaling using a MongoDBAutoscaler Object.

Create MongoDBAutoscaler Object

In order to set up vertical autoscaling for this standalone database, we have to create a MongoDBAutoscaler CRO with our desired configuration. Below is the YAML of the MongoDBAutoscaler object that we are going to create,

apiVersion: autoscaling.kubedb.com/v1alpha1
kind: MongoDBAutoscaler
metadata:
  name: mg-as
  namespace: demo
spec:
  databaseRef:
    name: mg-standalone
  storage:
    standalone:
      trigger: "On"
      usageThreshold: 60
      scalingThreshold: 50

Here,

  • spec.databaseRef.name specifies that we are performing vertical scaling operation on mg-standalone database.
  • spec.storage.standalone.trigger specifies that storage autoscaling is enabled for this database.
  • spec.storage.standalone.usageThreshold specifies storage usage threshold, if storage usage exceeds 60% then storage autoscaling will be triggered.
  • spec.storage.standalone.scalingThreshold specifies the scaling threshold. Storage will be scaled to 50% of the current amount.

Let’s create the MongoDBAutoscaler CR we have shown above,

$ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/kubedb/docs/raw/v2021.03.17/docs/examples/mongodb/autoscaling/storage/mg-as-standalone.yaml
mongodbautoscaler.autoscaling.kubedb.com/mg-as created

Storage Autoscaling is set up successfully

Let’s check that the mongodbautoscaler resource is created successfully,

$ kubectl get mongodbautoscaler -n demo
NAME    AGE
mg-as   102s

$ kubectl describe mongodbautoscaler mg-as -n demo
Name:         mg-as
Namespace:    demo
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:  autoscaling.kubedb.com/v1alpha1
Kind:         MongoDBAutoscaler
Metadata:
  Creation Timestamp:  2021-03-08T12:58:01Z
  Generation:          1
  Managed Fields:
    API Version:  autoscaling.kubedb.com/v1alpha1
    Fields Type:  FieldsV1
    fieldsV1:
      f:metadata:
        f:annotations:
          .:
          f:kubectl.kubernetes.io/last-applied-configuration:
      f:spec:
        .:
        f:databaseRef:
          .:
          f:name:
        f:storage:
          .:
          f:standalone:
            .:
            f:scalingThreshold:
            f:trigger:
            f:usageThreshold:
    Manager:         kubectl-client-side-apply
    Operation:       Update
    Time:            2021-03-08T12:58:01Z
  Resource Version:  134423
  Self Link:         /apis/autoscaling.kubedb.com/v1alpha1/namespaces/demo/mongodbautoscalers/mg-as
  UID:               999a2dc9-7eb7-4ed2-9e90-d3f8b21c091a
Spec:
  Database Ref:
    Name:  mg-standalone
  Storage:
    Standalone:
      Scaling Threshold:  50
      Trigger:            On
      Usage Threshold:    60
Events:                   <none>

So, the mongodbautoscaler resource is created successfully.

Now, for this demo, we are going to manually fill up the persistent volume to exceed the usageThreshold using dd command to see if storage autoscaling is working or not.

Let’s exec into the database pod and fill the database volume using the following commands:

$ kubectl exec -it -n demo mg-standalone-0 -- bash
[email protected]:/# df -h /data/db
Filesystem                                         Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/topolvm/1df4ee9e-b900-4c0f-9d2c-8493fb30bdc0 1014M  334M  681M  33% /data/db
[email protected]:/# dd if=/dev/zero of=/data/db/file.img bs=500M count=1
1+0 records in
1+0 records out
524288000 bytes (524 MB, 500 MiB) copied, 0.359202 s, 1.5 GB/s
[email protected]:/# df -h /data/db
Filesystem                                         Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/topolvm/1df4ee9e-b900-4c0f-9d2c-8493fb30bdc0 1014M  835M  180M  83% /data/db

So, from the above output we can see that the storage usage is 84%, which exceeded the usageThreshold 60%.

Let’s watch the mongodbopsrequest in the demo namespace to see if any mongodbopsrequest object is created. After some time you’ll see that a mongodbopsrequest of type VolumeExpansion will be created based on the scalingThreshold.

$ watch kubectl get mongodbopsrequest -n demo
Every 2.0s: kubectl get mongodbopsrequest -n demo
NAME                        TYPE              STATUS        AGE
mops-mg-standalone-p27c11   VolumeExpansion   Progressing   26s

Let’s wait for the ops request to become successful.

$ watch kubectl get mongodbopsrequest -n demo
Every 2.0s: kubectl get mongodbopsrequest -n demo
NAME                        TYPE              STATUS        AGE
mops-mg-standalone-p27c11   VolumeExpansion   Successful    73s

We can see from the above output that the MongoDBOpsRequest has succeeded. If we describe the MongoDBOpsRequest we will get an overview of the steps that were followed to expand the volume of the database.

$ kubectl describe mongodbopsrequest -n demo mops-mg-standalone-p27c11
Name:         mops-mg-standalone-p27c11
Namespace:    demo
Labels:       app.kubernetes.io/component=database
              app.kubernetes.io/instance=mg-standalone
              app.kubernetes.io/managed-by=kubedb.com
              app.kubernetes.io/name=mongodbs.kubedb.com
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:  ops.kubedb.com/v1alpha1
Kind:         MongoDBOpsRequest
Metadata:
  Creation Timestamp:  2021-03-08T13:19:51Z
  Generation:          1
  Managed Fields:
    API Version:  ops.kubedb.com/v1alpha1
    Fields Type:  FieldsV1
    fieldsV1:
      f:metadata:
        f:labels:
          .:
          f:app.kubernetes.io/component:
          f:app.kubernetes.io/instance:
          f:app.kubernetes.io/managed-by:
          f:app.kubernetes.io/name:
        f:ownerReferences:
      f:spec:
        .:
        f:databaseRef:
          .:
          f:name:
        f:type:
        f:volumeExpansion:
          .:
          f:standalone:
    Manager:      kubedb-autoscaler
    Operation:    Update
    Time:         2021-03-08T13:19:51Z
    API Version:  ops.kubedb.com/v1alpha1
    Fields Type:  FieldsV1
    fieldsV1:
      f:status:
        .:
        f:conditions:
        f:observedGeneration:
        f:phase:
    Manager:    kubedb-enterprise
    Operation:  Update
    Time:       2021-03-08T13:19:52Z
  Owner References:
    API Version:           autoscaling.kubedb.com/v1alpha1
    Block Owner Deletion:  true
    Controller:            true
    Kind:                  MongoDBAutoscaler
    Name:                  mg-as
    UID:                   999a2dc9-7eb7-4ed2-9e90-d3f8b21c091a
  Resource Version:        139871
  Self Link:               /apis/ops.kubedb.com/v1alpha1/namespaces/demo/mongodbopsrequests/mops-mg-standalone-p27c11
  UID:                     9606485d-9dd8-4787-9c7c-61fc874c555e
Spec:
  Database Ref:
    Name:  mg-standalone
  Type:    VolumeExpansion
  Volume Expansion:
    Standalone:  1594884096
Status:
  Conditions:
    Last Transition Time:  2021-03-08T13:19:52Z
    Message:               MongoDB ops request is expanding volume of database
    Observed Generation:   1
    Reason:                VolumeExpansion
    Status:                True
    Type:                  VolumeExpansion
    Last Transition Time:  2021-03-08T13:20:47Z
    Message:               Successfully Expanded Volume
    Observed Generation:   1
    Reason:                StandaloneVolumeExpansion
    Status:                True
    Type:                  StandaloneVolumeExpansion
    Last Transition Time:  2021-03-08T13:20:52Z
    Message:               Successfully Expanded Volume
    Observed Generation:   1
    Reason:                
    Status:                True
    Type:                  
    Last Transition Time:  2021-03-08T13:20:57Z
    Message:               StatefulSet is recreated
    Observed Generation:   1
    Reason:                ReadyStatefulSets
    Status:                True
    Type:                  ReadyStatefulSets
    Last Transition Time:  2021-03-08T13:20:57Z
    Message:               Successfully Expanded Volume
    Observed Generation:   1
    Reason:                Successful
    Status:                True
    Type:                  Successful
  Observed Generation:     1
  Phase:                   Successful
Events:
  Type    Reason                     Age   From                        Message
  ----    ------                     ----  ----                        -------
  Normal  PauseDatabase              110s  KubeDB Enterprise Operator  Pausing MongoDB demo/mg-standalone
  Normal  PauseDatabase              110s  KubeDB Enterprise Operator  Successfully paused MongoDB demo/mg-standalone
  Normal  StandaloneVolumeExpansion  55s   KubeDB Enterprise Operator  Successfully Expanded Volume
  Normal                             50s   KubeDB Enterprise Operator  Successfully Expanded Volume
  Normal  ResumeDatabase             50s   KubeDB Enterprise Operator  Resuming MongoDB demo/mg-standalone
  Normal  ResumeDatabase             50s   KubeDB Enterprise Operator  Successfully resumed MongoDB demo/mg-standalone
  Normal  ReadyStatefulSets          45s   KubeDB Enterprise Operator  StatefulSet is recreated
  Normal  Successful                 45s   KubeDB Enterprise Operator  Successfully Expanded Volume

Now, we are going to verify from the Statefulset, and the Persistent Volume whether the volume of the standalone database has expanded to meet the desired state, Let’s check,

$ kubectl get sts -n demo mg-standalone -o json | jq '.spec.volumeClaimTemplates[].spec.resources.requests.storage'
"1594884096"
$ kubectl get pv -n demo
NAME                                       CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM                          STORAGECLASS          REASON   AGE
pvc-cf469ed8-a89a-49ca-bf7c-8c76b7889428   2Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    demo/datadir-mg-standalone-0   topolvm-provisioner            26m

The above output verifies that we have successfully autoscaled the volume of the MongoDB standalone database.

Cleaning Up

To clean up the Kubernetes resources created by this tutorial, run:

kubectl delete mg -n demo mg-standalone
kubectl delete mongodbautoscaler -n demo mg-as